About Music

Forms and Instruments
Music of Kerala is as old as her people and their culture. When it emerged out of its hoary past to become a reality, many branches of music became prominent, viz., (a) the folk music, which remained as a starch root, providing nourishment to all its off shoots, (b) the vaideeka or the sacred line of music, which later on developed into marga sangeet to dwell in the sanctum sanctorum of the Arya and Dravida temples and their traditional theatrical set ups, (c) laukeeka or the secular line which gradually became the body and spirit of desi sangeet, to prosper under the patronage of kings and the public and (d) the natya line which was nothing but the blissful imitation of the three if not their fusion, to exist in between them, initially, at the temple stages, and gradually, sections of them finding their way into the royal courts and public places, after due transformations and adjustments.

The roots and the grammar were same in all these schools and they were all governed by the basic concept called tauratrikam which denoted the harmonious blending of the triad forms of art, viz., geetam (vocal music) vadyam (instrumental music) and nrityam (dramatic dance). There were borrowing and lending among them and quite often one used to eclipse the others in prosperity and popularity. Yet, all these had separate existence and identity in terms of songs and singers, instruments and instrumentalists, aims and expressions, functions and field of activities.

In dealing with the history of the music of Kerala whether it is folk, sacred, secular or the traditional theatrical, what strikes one most is its sparkling variety, each of which, has an exhilarating charm and melody of its own. While their songs had an unadorned beauty and simplicity their music was marked by a natural freshness and melody. In their expression, mood, music and rhythm had a supreme balance and often dance joined them to give an additional charm and completeness.

The early music of Kerala, with natya line at its helm, finds an eloquent expression in the contents of the chapter called arangettru-kkadai of Chilappathikaram, one of the five great epics of the ancient Dravida literature, for which an exhaustive commentary has been supplied by Adivarkku-Nallar, its leading commentator. This music had its hey day during the dominance of jainism and buddhism in south India, a few centuries before and after Christ.

It is said to be the mirror of the music culture of the above sects, famous for their artistic achievements and organizations. As centuries moved on, these two religious systems were overpowered by Hinduism which came as a storm to uproot them. Yet, it took a few centuries for Hinduism to establish its supremacy. Though religion changed music and other arts they were not very much affected during these years except for the fact that from then onwards, the spiritual line became more prominent.

Starting as a powerful spiritual force during the early fifth century, Hinduism became a peaceful and pious discipline from the seventh century onwards. In its transformation the dedicated services of nayanars, the religious bards of saivism and aalwars, the religious bards of vaishnavism had significant roles. They preached their respective faiths through innumerable spiritual songs called thevaram, thiruvachakam etc., composed by saivites and tiruvaymozhi, composed by the vaishnavites under the tender care and kind patronage of the Cola, Cera and Pandya kings who were famous not only as patrons and masters of arts, but also as followers of the above two cults. Kulasekhara, said to be a ruler of Kerala during ninth century, was himself a great devotee of Vishnu and kala-sarva bhauma who is said to be the builder of many temples in Kerala with solid and scientific scheme of construction. The king planned and developed various ceremonies and festivals of the temples, and improved and strengthened the various institutions of the temple artists and their whole-time participation in daily rituals and festive occasions. The credit of building the koothambalams under strong and architectural principles also is said to be the brain child of this great king. A few Sanskrit plays like Tapati Samvaranam etc., to be staged at these theatres by the traditional artists called chakkiyars and nangiars have been attributed to him. There were also exchange of temple musicians, actors and dancers between Kerala and Tamil Nadu during this period.

Due to all these, from the eighth century onwards, music in Kerala, especially the religious line, got a new shape and charm which were largely in the line of the ideas and expressions of thevaram, tiruvachakam etc., of the saivites and also in the model of tiruvaymozhi etc., of the vaishnavites which were later on collected under one volume called nalayira-prabandham or dravida-veda-sagaram by Nada Muni, a famous devotee of Vishnu, poet and singer. In the words of the late R.V. Poduval, "The composers of these hymns have showed an admirable instinct for form, grace, colour, sweetness and spiritual emotions and they have left for posterity, gems of spontaneous songs, mellifluous and well balanced in diction having a delicate beauty of sound and amounting and piercing melody which goes straight into the hearts of man". Innumerable prayer songs were composed after them both in form and content by Malayali poets. The birth of manipravalam language and Malayalam script also might have been congenial to their growth.

A style of singing combining the ritualistic music of the state and the music of the oduvars, the temple singers of thevaram, and araivars, the temple singers of thiruvaymozhi developed under the name sopana. It had been so called through its association with the place known as sopanam, a place in the sanctum sanctorum of the temple from where it was sung. It has been defined as a system of music 'which is generally slow in time with notes going higher, and rising in pitch and intensity as they proceed, producing sweet melody and grace'. The music which was based on principles of tauratrikam was handled by certain traditional communities called Marar, Nambeesan, Nambiar etc., who were the counterparts of the oduvars and araiyars of Tamil Nadu. The music was heard along with its typical instruments in the temple rituals, religious festivals, traditional and theatrical productions etc., of Kerala temples, both Arya and Dravida.

The aforesaid music continued to flourish in the state for a few succeeding centuries without much changes except that it swelled in size at all levels. It was from the fourteenth century onwards that the music of Kerala experienced a new transformation as a result of the introduction of Gita Govinda the immortal Yogatmaka (spiritual) musical opera of the great poet, Jayadeva, into the land through the vaishnava preachers. It was immediately accepted by the people both at the temple, as a collection of prayer songs and style of singing and at the theatre, as a dance-drama. The overwhelming popularity of Gita Govinda both as a model for religious music and traditional dance-drama, "in many respects transmitted the musical melodies extant in the state". A new form of music modelled after the padas of Jayadeva's ashtapadi, decked in melody and mood emerged as a result, and this soon got its way into the temple, temple theatres and also at other centres. A few translations of the Sanskrit Geya drisya kavya and a few imitations like sivashtapadi etc., also came into vogue. Later on, the principles, pattern and presentation became the guiding force for the origin and development of krishnanattam, an exquisite dance drama composed by King Mana Veda. It has been said that Gita Govinda 'caused mellifluous modification on the sentiment of the music and drumming and in the elaboration of dressing. Out of the changes of the subject, sentiment and method, arose the distinctive krishnanattom which reached its fullest development in the fourteenth century'.

Krishnanattam paved the way for ramanattam and 'the general structure of kathakali (ramanattam) was more like Jayadeva's ashtapadi than anything else.'

Vira Kerala Varma, the Raja of Kottarakkara, (seventeenth century A.D.) the originator of kathakali, was a great musician and composer as is evidenced from his kathakali plays, "His melodies", remarks Poduval, "are fresh, vivid, spontaneous, impatient of restraint and full of warm imaginative feeling. He penetrates into the pictorial aspects of his songs and siezes the poetic conception within. The music of Vira Kerala Varma Raja has on the whole, a strangeness added to beauty, modelled after the Gita Govinda of Jayadeva". No wonder, from then onwards Kerala music which was hitherto dominated by the thevaram and other religious music traditions of the southern states had to adjust itself with the prominence of the natya line of music, sprung from the Gita Govinda.

Another royal musician and composer of high merit who also was in many respects, responsible for developing the music culture of the state was the great Kartika Tirunal Rama Varma who ruled Tiruvitamkur from 1758 to 1759, the royal composer of a few classical kritis in its strict sense and also the composer of many outstanding padams contained in his kathakali plays like Subhadraharanam, Bakavadham, Gandharva Vijayam, Panchali Swayamvaram, Kalyana saugandhikam etc. He was a musician and vaineeka (veenaplayer) of high repute, and his compositions, marked for their musical depth and sublimity of ideas, had in many ways raised the music standards of the state and created a new interest in public towards music. Bala Rama Bharatam, a monumental Sanskrit treatise on music, dance and dramatic techniques of Kerala, stand as a supreme testimonial to his mastery over the subject. Kartika Tirunal's time was noted for a brilliant array of music composers and other luminaries of performing arts and literature who adorned the court of the king, like Unnayi Varier 'whose compositions exhibit a wide range and variety of structural inventions and possess an imperishable richness of musical colour and audacity'.

Equally versatile was his designated successor, Aswati Tirunal (1756-1788) whom some critics judge as a better musician and composer than Kartika Tirunal, while weighing the music and literature of his kathakali like Ambareesha charitam, Pootanamoksham, Rugminee swayamvaram, Poundraka vadhom etc., and a highly scholarly and imaginative natakam called Rugminee swayamvaram, and a Geyaprabandham entitled Vancheesa sthava prabandham.

Side by side with the above line of music, the reign of Aswati Tirunal witnesses the growth of a distinct branch of music which created a new form and spirit, which by eliminating the natya element from the trial concept of sangeeta and by developing the norms of classical katcheri padhati (concert line) as propounded by Tyagaraja, its pioneer. The immortal composer and his colleagues, Muttuswami Deekshitar and Syama Sastry, whose musical idioms and schemes and their supreme compositions popularly called as kritis, took the whole of south India like a spell to which Kerala also was not an exception. Not that the Karnatic music of the pre-Trinity period which started with sage Purandara Dasa, and progressed through Kshetrajna and other prominent composers like Annamacharya and others were totally unknown in Kerala. Somehow their impact was not very prominent in the state which might be because, Kerala hitherto was concentrating mainly if not wholly, on the sacred and traditional theatrical line of music under one common style viz., sopana clothed in the tauratrika principle. As a sudden awakening against its domination and popularity, came the aforesaid excellent sastriya sangeeta padhati of the Trinity which shed the natya element and concentrated on the katcheri dharmas through a variety of songs called kritis and their thrilling procedures of expression which eclipsed the simple traits of sopana.

As a result, disciples of the Trinity started flowing over the state on invitation of the Tiruvitamkur sovereign, as state musicians or guests of honour. Their musical deliberations at the court and at public platforms made the crystallised form of music viz., kriti, and its systematic musical expression attracted many and provided models for state musicians to copy them and develop them through their own creative abilities. This new trend which started showing glimpses during the closing days of Kartika Tirunal, became known during the times of Aswati Tirunal, reached its climax during the reign of Swati Tirunal the famous musician and composer whose greatness remained and remains unchallenged till today in Kerala.

The reign of Swati Tirunal who became king even before his birth in 1817 and ascended the throne in 1833 is considered as the Golden Age of all arts not to speak of music and dance. He was a king among musicians and composer among kings. Hovering above all his predecessors through his inborn artistic and musical talents, wisdom, imagination, strict discipline and dedication, the Great Raja, within a short span of life could achieve so much, which even a brilliant array of artists and scholars together could not have achieved through ages. Besides his own attainments, the king had the rare privilege of having the best artists, composers, musicians, poets, dancers and other artists from all over India, either as his state musicians or guests of honour. Ably assisted by such brilliant contemporaries like Irayimman Tampi, Parameswara Bhagavatar, Maliyakkal Krishna Marar, Subba Rao, Ksheerabdhi Sastrikal, Vadivelu and his brothers, Ayodhya Prasad, Mukunda Ram and others, the king could raise the music of Tiruvitamkur to an ever memorable status, and greatness. The Tiruvitamkur royal court was resounding with the vocal and instrumental music of great artists of different disciplines and beaming with the colourful performances of bharata natyam, kathakali and mohiniyattom, a spectacular female solo dance which owed its entire classical shape, high discipline, moving expression, tuneful songs and suitable orchestra to the deep insight and skill of the great ruler. Swati Tirunal was also a gifted musician-composer who could most lavishly set his skill on every form of music like swara jati, jatiswaram, varnam, kriti in all its varieties and diversities, padam, javali, tillana, devotional compositions like Utsava prabandham, Aakhyanas and other Geyaprabandhams. Without any hesitation one can say that Swati Tirunal was the only known composer who had composed not only marvellous Karnatak compositions but also various compositions in Hindustani music like dhrupad, khyal, thumri, tappa, tarana, bhajan etc., with perfect ease and imaginative excellence. There was nothing which he composed that did not become masterpiece, be it classical songs, or treatise in Sanskrit on the theory of musical compositions entitled Muhanaprasantya prasa vyavastha though a small one, also has conquered a worthy place in the field. Besides the musical brilliance and thematic profundity, the compositions of the king reveal rhetorical sparks of a very high order, including the abundance of swaraksharas - a rare musical and literary calibre wherein swara of a raga becomes identical with the letters of the word, in which Swati Tirunal had very few equals.

The golden cultural era of Swati Tirunal witnessed a proverbial record of development of activities in the field of all performing arts in general and classical music and dance in particular, during when both the art forms and artists belonging to the state as well as from all over India, got immense prominence, popularity recognition and elevation. The arts at the royal court, leading temples, training centres and at public places were all improved and revitalised. The entire state became a healthy centre for a powerful art renaissance of a very high order and an impressive media for cultural integration, connecting Kerala to Kashmir, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Punjab, Bengal, Orissa and other states, especially at a time when facilities for easy travel and stay were all limited. Swati Tirunal, with his brilliant contemporaries like Irayimman Tampi, Parameswara Bhagavatar, Vadivelu and a host of others were the brilliant torch bearers of this spectacular cultural activity.

During the post Swati period, there was a set back to the classical music and dance activities mainly due to the fact that Uttram Tirunal Marthanda Varma, the immediate successor, however great and able he was, could not rise to the level of the musical calibre of his legendary predecessor. Further, his attention was drawn more towards kathakali than to classical music and dance. To add to this, were many internal problems like famine, epidemic etc, and external disturbances created by the British. All these made the state economy weak and the arts and artists, undernourished. Unable to bear the sad state of affairs, the classical musicians and great artists of the state either left the land or died without creating a noteworthy sishya parampara or succession of pupils which could have preserved a rich music heritage. This great lapse in its turn created an unholy situation, where the original tunes and moods of the compositions of Swati and his contemporaries faced a gradual extinction and cold death. To add to this, there was the total neglect of the arts by the British supremacy which was propagating western cultural wisdom. The sad state of affairs continued till the first quarter of the twentieth century, when a cultural revival started effectively under the royal patronage and with the dedicated assistance of great scholars and masters like Muthiah Bhagavatar, Kalyana Krishna Bhagavatar, T. Lakshmanan Pillai, and other celebrities from the local and neighbouring regions.

Folk Music

The bulk of the musical heritage of Kerala lies in its folklore which includes songs as well as its early poems and verses. It is worthwhile to note here, that unlike Sanskrit, which excluded songs from its poetry and brought them under fine arts, Malayalam as other dravidian languages, treated songs as an essential part of its literature and used them as a medium to express their thoughts and culture. Naturally therefore, one finds in the early stages, Malayalam folk songs and regional poetry existing as one and the same.

The innumerable varieties of folk songs spreading over many centuries, have been composed, preserved and handed down to the succeeding generations through oral tradition. The authorship of many of these songs and the exact time of their composition are not clearly known. Yet, they form an unbroken link between the ancient and the modern people and provide valuable records of their religious, social and cultural progress.

Looking at the form, style and musical expression of these songs, they can be placed under three or four stages of development. The first phase is characterised by stray verses prior to the fifth century A.D., which can hardly be called as poems and songs. The second stage consists of verses and songs which were largely influenced by the form spirit and expression of Tamil viruthams (verses) and pattus (songs). The third stage consists of simple and sweet Malayalam songs and poems, some of which were modelled after Tamil chindus, varams, padals etc. The Kerala folklore at its last and refined stage, includes certain manipravalam songs which combine simple Sanskrit and refined Malayalam.

As religion and chivalry played an important role in shaping the early Malayali and his art, the earliest songs were either religious or heroic. Then they absorbed a variety of other subjects related to occupation while certain songs like maveli, thumpi, jnaruppattu etc., had different tunes, different songs had same tunes.

The accompanying instruments of the folklore like chenda, para, talam, chengala, kuzhal, villu, kinnam, kudam, veena etc., which exceed fifty, are a class by themselves. It is the singular pride of the Malayalis, that they have been able to posses a rich heritage of original and unaltered instruments and instrumental playing which are as old as those of natya sastra. Likewise, many of the old and obsolete ragas can still be traced in the unassailable traditions of Kerala folk music and as such, they are of great utility to the researchers and students of music. Also in them, one sees the nucleus of sopana the indigenous music system of Kerala which reigned supreme till the classical Karnatic music swept the state.

The exquisite rustic music of Kerala faced a set back in its traditionalised form, utility and popularity about half a century ago with the sudden establishment of a variety of new styles like the concert music, light music, drama music, film music etc., in whose expansion, the radio and television played the leading role. Unable to withstand the growing popularity of such well organized music disciplines the folk songs and their artists either receded to remote villages or modified themselves in form and character in their anxiety to claim a suitable place among other styles. Recently, an earnest attempt has been going on to rediscover and preserve the folk music in their original form and charm.


As said earlier sopana music is the traditional and typical age old music school of Kerala with a hoary past. After undergoing various stages and transformations over a period of two thousand years, it came to manifest itself as the music of the Arya and Dravida temples, temple festivals, traditional theatrical productions and also the background music of certain performing art forms which demands a fusion of geeta, vadya and nritya collectively called as tauratrikam.

The word literally means a staircase and is interpreted as the music which is sung from the sopana or the granite staircase near the sanctorum. Besides in common parlance the term has a musical significance, too. Here it denotes a music which proceeds, slowly in an ascending and descending order of its raga swaras. Though the ragalapana of all systems of music have the same procedure, here it is different in the sense that the alapana treats every note of a raga as its base (nila or padi) and proceeds to its immediate succeeding note and retreats to the starting note which need not necessarily the shadja. There on, it proceeds to the second next note of the raga and comes back to the starting note and the process continues.

Another important thing to be noted here is that the alapana, unlike that of art music, is slow and tala bound. The alapana in akara form is set to the beats of the edakka and eIattalam, in different speeds, enlivened by certain interim koorus, or permutations which indicate conclusion of different stages in its course. On close observation it would be found that there are striking similarities, between sopana-akaralapana bound by the beats of edakka and that of Hindustani music of the tala of tabla (drum) bound by the beats of the four aksharakala duration on the tabla.

Another trait of sopana lies in its use of straight and sharp notes of a raga and holding them for long when such usages are not found in their rendering at the concert level. It is said that straight and sharp notes help to heighten a grip situation. Interestingly, such usages create a feeling that there are more than the usual varieties of nishadas, gandharas etc., in this music.

The scheme of gamakas, of sopana, though same with sastreeya, their choice and application are different here. The gamakas like triroopam, andolitam, leenam etc., are more prominent in this style. When they are applied to the swaras of a raga which have different gamakas at the concert level, they give a totally different feeling.

Sopana music is marked by a certain tremor which is heard with most of the swaras of a raga. Even the shadja and panchama which are always sung straight in the art music, are not free from this tremor. Incidentally such a trait is evident in all archaic or crude forms of music all over the world.

A sudden break to various sancharas and phrases also and to the typicalities of sopana. This peculiarity is a reminiscence of the singing styles of verses of the ancient Sanskrit drama like koothu and koodiyattom which have a direct link with natya sastra. It is said that this is meant for making the expression more dramatic and distinctive.

Emphasis on jeevasthayam is another trait of sopana. The musician chooses one note from a raga and weaves a dominant sanchara with certain supporting swaras around it. This phrase or prayoga which is capable of creating a particular sentiment, becomes the jeevasthaya and is frequently heard while rendering a padam, or a sloka. The rest of the sancharas are woven in such a way that they support the sthayibhava of the jeevasthaya. If there is one or more notes which do not assist the mood of the padam they are skipped over and this has become a natural phenomenon in ragas like padi, puraneeru, etc.

Because of the above traits quite often in this system, poorvanga (first half of the swarakrama of a raga) or uttaranga (second half) where in the jeevasthayam is placed, alone becomes prominent.

Limited range of ragas, musical forms and talas and restriction in their renderings are also traits of this system. Then there are ragas like padi, puraneeru, indolam, indisa, samanta, malahari, kanakurinji which are still hurdled in their archaic form with a fewer sthayas, range, etc. On careful observation it would be found that these ragas are the crude forms of many of the present day classical ragas. The fewer phraseology of these ragas are still kept in view of their capability in expressing particular feelingsMost of the songs start from panchama and goes down to adhara shadja or upto tara shadja. This is because the edakka, the principal shruti-laya vadya, is tuned to panchama and has a range of only one sthayi, with panchama as its base.

In the realm of tala also sopana music has its peculiarities. The scheme of the margi talas, which is said to be prevalent before the advent of the thirty five desi talas and which is considered to be best suited for creating effect, is followed here.

The orchestraic instruments of sopana are typical and play an important role in creating a bhava at its best. Though there are more than fifty instruments prevailing, the leading instruments which are employed in this system are chenda, edakka, chengala, ilathalam, maddalam, kuzhithalam, thimila, nantuni, maram, kombu, kuzhal, villu, sangham etc. Chenda is a unique drum with great potentialities while edakka is treated as a divine drum, which can provide shruti as well as laya. In creating proper atmosphere and mood these instruments have few equals.

Thus the natya element has developed a distinctive style of its own and these distinctions, as opined by great musicians like Attoor Krishna Pisharadi, are the products of a very high scientific system of music that has links with the natya sastra, which records the most ancient music system of the tauratrika form.

Yet what one sadly realises nowadays is the fact that the sopana music is still groping in darkness and is yet to be restored to its original spirit and charm. In establishing it, the main hurdles are the absence of (a) written materials dealing with its science and techniques, (b) scholars who can talk about it accurately and analytically (c) and masters and artists who can present it distinctively and differently from the classical and the folk. Perhaps a dedicated attempt on the part of musicians, musicologists, lovers and patrons to come closer for frank dialogues under some workshop or seminar, in which their counterparts from other states like Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Bengal, Orissa, Maharashtra, Punjab etc., are also present, may produce good results in re-discovering this great art form which has lot of potentialities which are hidden under continuous neglect and mis-interpretation.

Classical Karnatic Music

The Karnatic classical music as is heard and understood today made its presence known in Kerala, a little before Swati Tirunal, and had its efflorescence during the time of Swathi when bulk of musicians from all over south India, started flowing into the main stream of state musicians, at the court of the versatile royal musician and composer. Further, the age saw innumerable compositions being composed, practised and popularised all over Kerala and also outside the state. The deterioration started during the post Swati period when all musicians fled and all traditions, perished. When a remarkable revival of this music was started after the first quarter of the present century by eminent musicians, scholars and patrons, what one sadly finds is the loss of the original music of the Kerala composers which made their compositions distinct from one another. In the absence of original tunes new tunes were conceived for most of them by eminent gurus. But they have not been well received by musicians in general and masters in particular, because of the fact, that they do not speak the spirit of the composers and their moods. This fact has often affected the popularity and proper recognition of the songs and created many controversies. To re-discover the original tunes of these remarkable compositions an attempt could still be thought of, by calling together, all those lingering parmparas like the Mullamoodu Raghavayya, Kuttikunju Tankachi etc., and gather from them the original music of these great composers who were gifted vaggeyakaras in the strict sense of the term. If a series of such attempts could get the original music of the songs, may it be crude, vague and elementary, they are good enough, because improving a genuine piece of music is much better than foreign products however marvellous the latter may be. The great task of restoring the original musical excellencies of the compositions of Swati Tirunal, Tampi, Thankachi, K.C. Kesava Pillai and others and safeguarding a tradition that was solely Keralite, now rests upon patrons music lovers and organized bodies.

Music of the Sangeeta Natakam

Though the beginning of the dramatic line of music can be traced in the music of koothu, koodiyattam, ashtapadiattam, krishnanattam, kathakali etc., the music of sangeeta natakas as we see it today, started with the introduction of Tamil sangeeta natakas like Pavizhakkodi, Valli tirumanam, Nandanar caritram etc. about a hundred years ago. The overwhelming popularity of the Tamil dramas prompted many native writers and musician-scholars to compose Malayala natakas in their model. Thus there began an age of sangeeta natakas like Sadarama, Dhruvacaritam, Parijata pushpaharanam, Harischandra caritam, Sangeeta naishadham, Nalla thankai etc., which captured the whole of Kerala stage and reigned supreme with actors like Velukutty Bhagavatar, Subbaiya Bhagavatar, Augustine Joseph, Sebastian Kunhu Kunhu Bhagavatar, Vaikkom Vasudevan Nair and Thankom Vasudevan Nair, C.K. Rajam and also a host of musicians including Sankunni Bhagavatar.

In the growth of the music of the sangeeta natakas, chavittu natakam and other dramas based on Christ have very significant contributions and those dramas based on social themes, having a different musical set up led to the growth of light music.

Lalita Sangeetam

With the beginning of the struggle for independence and social justice, a new form of music with a different musical set up dawned, and many musical styles had to retreat to accommodate this new form of exquisite music which combined the classical, semi-classical, folk and the traditional theatrical styles under one melodious pattern called lalita sangeetam. This new form of music conveying touching emotions through moving tones and tunes, has manifested itself in the field of cinema, drama, All India Radio, Television etc.